Technical Info

To resolve domain access requests you use 3 different kinds of Servers:

1.) Root-Servers
There are 13 Public-Root Servers dispersed across the globe. For instance the public Root-Server at Amsterdam: These machines only know where the TLD-Servers for a certain TLD are. ( TLDs: the entire Top Level Domain like .com .info .airport .news or .site.

2.) TLD-Servers
TLD-Servers are machines like and TLD-Servers answer authoritive for a TLD. That is why, when you look at a dig report for e.g. .vangelis it comes back as two public TLD-Servers. and These TLD servers do not know any IP numbers of web sites etc. The zone file of a TLD server contains only addresses of Name-Servers.

3.) Name-Servers / Caching-Resolvers.
Name-Servers are machines like and A Name-Server
translates a second level domain into an IP number. So a Name-Server is authoritive for a set of SLDs ( Second Level Domains like or dating.area ) and knows exactly where these particular web sites are. Name-Servers however are also frequently used for another purpose. Access providers use these Name-Servers also to resolve requests for their access traffic.
The Caching-Resolvers.

In order to increase reliability TLD-Servers and the Name-Servers should not run on the same machine. Using separated TLD-Servers, (like & that will answer authoritive for one TLD or a few TLDs, is the best solution. These servers, of course on different locations and using IP numbers from different ranges, would serve ONLY TLDs which they are authoritive for - not TLDs like .com or .us or anything.

In this ideal situation, Root-Servers only answer authoritive for the root, and point to the TLD-Servers for a given TLD (like the public TLD Servers for the TLDs which the servers are authoritive for). So there will be no SLD zones on the TLD-Servers - only TLDs. In case someone asks them where, for example, is, they will only respond
with the IP address of the Name-Servers which are authoritive for e.g. ns1.public-root.netand Those Name-Servers (The SLD Servers, if you will)
in turn will respond with the IP address of the host ''

Cache poisoning:
One server cannot (at least it most certainly should not) perform two or more roles. This, will eliminate any possibility for the occurrence of cache poisoning throughout the root system. That is why, for instance, tld1.public-root.netand are two TLD-Servers that not have its recursion on.

Quality of service:
When people register an SLD with a Registrar, they will point to the Name-Servers which are
authoritive for that SLD, just the same as they do now if they register any domain through NSI
or anywhere else. Important is however that these TLD-Servers and Name-Servers should not
be the same machines.

ISPs are encouraged by TLD.NAME to operate Public-Root Servers, but they MUST register and sign contracts to guarantee public DNS services on those IP addresses. In order to guarantee quality of service, all Public-Root servers need to be checked and certified.

All providers will be encouraged to operate public Caching Servers merely by changing their 'hint files'.

TLD servers like and are currently totally redundant.
These servers are running at 2 different locations and have IP numbers from two different
IP ranges. IP and All TLD-Servers need to be 100% redundant.

TLD.NAME has a tool available that enables every Internet user to see the whole Internet
without changing their DNS settings. This tool works with almost all Windows versions.

The Public-Root is running public DNS Servers in almost every part of the world. Public-Root also provides coverage in areas of the world that have typically been ignored.

When a Name-Server gets a request for a domain name (witch is not in the zonefile of the
Name-Server itself) it will consult a Root-Server ( It will pick a random Root-Server from its
hint file ). The Root-Server will be asked where the TLD-Server is and then the TLD-Server is
asked where the SLD-Server is and then the SLD-Server yields the IP address of the host
(often 'www').

About Us | Internet | ISPs | Registrars | Root-Operators | Contact | Top Levels | Pre-Register | Your Provider | Root-Servers | Check | Upgrade
Copyright ©2002 - 2015 TLD.NAME. All Rights Reserved.